Mushroom value chain

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Mushroom value chain

History[ edit ] Corn was first domesticated about 10, years ago in what is now Mexico. In Mexico, for example, remnants of popcorn have been found that date to around BC. Popcorn's accessibility increased rapidly in the s with Charles Cretors ' invention of the popcorn maker.

Mushroom value chain

Cretors, a Chicago candy store owner, created a number of steam powered machines for roasting nuts, and applied the technology to the corn kernels. By the turn of the century, Cretors had created and deployed street carts equipped with steam powered popcorn makers.

Thus, while other businesses failed, the popcorn business thrived and became a source of income for many struggling farmers, including the Redenbacher family, namesake of the famous popcorn brand. During World War IIsugar rations diminished candy production, and Americans compensated by eating three times as much popcorn as they had before.

Their minds eventually changed, however, and in a Midwestern theater owner named Glen W. Dickson installed popcorn machines in the lobbies of his theaters.

The venture was a financial success, and the trend soon spread. InGeneral Mills received the first patent for a microwave popcorn bag, with popcorn consumption seeing a sharp increase by tens of thousands of pounds in the years following.

Unlike most other grains, the outer hull of the popcorn kernel is both strong and impervious to moisture and the starch inside consists almost entirely of a hard type. Under these conditions, the starch inside the kernel gelatinizessoftens, and becomes pliable.

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The internal pressure of the entrapped Mushroom value chain continues to Mushroom value chain until the breaking point of the hull is reached: The hull thereupon ruptures rapidly and explodes, causing a sudden drop in pressure inside the kernel and a corresponding rapid expansion of the steam, which expands the starch and proteins of the endosperm into airy foam.

As the foam rapidly cools, the starch and protein polymers set into the familiar crispy puff. Though the kernels of some wild types will pop, the cultivated strain is Zea mays everta, which is a special kind of flint corn.

Popcorn on the cob before shelling Cooking methods[ edit ] An in-home hot-air popcorn maker Popcorn can be cooked with butter or oil. Although small quantities can be popped in a stove-top kettle or pot in a home kitchen, commercial sale of freshly popped popcorn employs specially designed popcorn machines, which were invented in Chicago, Illinoisby Charles Cretors in Cretors successfully introduced his invention at the Columbian Exposition in At this same world's fair, F.

Rueckheim introduced a molasses -flavored "Candied Popcorn," the first caramel corn ; his brother, Louis Ruekheim, slightly altered the recipe and introduced it as Cracker Jack popcorn in Previously, vendors popped corn by holding a wire basket over an open flame.

At best, the result was a hot, dry, unevenly cooked snack. Cretors's machine popped corn in a mixture of one-third clarified buttertwo-thirds lardand salt. A fire under a boiler created steam that drove a small engine; that engine drove the gears, shaft, and agitator that stirred the corn and powered a small automated clown puppet-like figure, "the Toasty Roasty Man," an attention attracting amusement intended to drum up business.

A wire connected to the top of the cooking pan allowed the operator to disengage the drive mechanism, lift the cover, and dump popped corn into the storage bin beneath. Exhaust from the steam engine was piped to a hollow pan below the corn storage bin and kept freshly popped corn uniformly warm for the first time.

Excess steam was also used to operate a small, shrill whistle to further attract attention. The un-popped corn kernels are poured into a large cast-iron canister—sometimes called a ' popcorn hammer '—that is then sealed with a heavy lid and slowly turned over a curbside fire in rotisserie fashion.

When a pressure gauge on the canister reaches a certain level, the canister is removed from the fire, a large canvas sack is put over the lid and the seal is released. With a huge boom, all of the popcorn explodes at once and is poured into the sack.

Individual consumers can also buy and use specialized popping appliances that typically generate no more than a gallon or about four liters of popped corn per batch. Some of these appliances also accept a small volume of oil or melted butter to assist thermal transfer from a stationary heating element, but others are "air poppers" which rapidly circulate heated air up through the interior, keeping the un-popped kernels in motion to avoid burning and then blowing the popped kernels out through the chute.

The majority of popcorn sold for home consumption is now packaged in a microwave popcorn bag for use in a microwave oven. If heated too quickly, the steam in the outer layers of the kernel can reach high pressures and rupture the hull before the starch in the center of the kernel can fully gelatinize, leading to partially popped kernels with hard centers.

Mushroom value chain

Heating too slowly leads to entirely unpopped kernels: Expansion is an important factor to both the consumer and vendor. For the consumer, larger pieces of popcorn tend to be more tender and are associated with higher quality. For the grower, distributor, and vendor, expansion is closely correlated with profit:Westinghouse Petite Single-Light 30 inch Reversible Six-Blade Indoor Ceiling Fan, Antique Brass with Opal Mushroom Glass - - timberdesignmag.com MONEY analyzed the largest U.S.

casual dining chain restaurants, ranking the 25 that provided the best value for your money. Popcorn (popcorns or pop-corn) is a variety of corn kernel, which expands and puffs up when heated.. A popcorn kernel's strong hull contains the seed's hard, starchy endosperm with 14–20% moisture, which turns to steam as the kernel is heated.

Pressure from the steam continues to build until the hull ruptures, allowing the kernel to forcefully expand from 20 to 50 times its original size.

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