Everything you always wanted to know about fermented foods Are fermented foods the best thing since…bread? Click for a closer look. Fermented foodssuch as sauerkraut and kombuchahave become popular for health reasons. I have made my own sauerkraut in the past and have recently made the tasty, fermented Korean side dish, kimchi.
Miasma theory[ edit ] A representation by Robert Seymour of the cholera epidemic depicts the spread of the disease in the form of poisonous air.
Miasma theory The miasma theory was the predominant theory of disease transmission before the germ theory took hold towards the end of the 19th century.
The theory posited that diseases were the product of environmental factors such as contaminated water, foul air, and poor hygienic conditions. Such infections, according to the theory, were not passed between individuals but would affect those within a locale that gave rise to such vapors.
In his poem, De rerum natura On the Nature of Things, ca. AD that some patients might have "seeds of fever".
ADGalen speculated that plagues were spread by "certain seeds of plague", which were present in the air. AD —Galen explained that patients might relapse during recovery from a fever because some "seed of the disease" lurked in their bodies, which would cause a recurrence of the disease if the patients didn't follow a physician's therapeutic regimen.
The diseases were categorised based on how they were transmitted, and how long they could lie dormant. Italian physician Francesco Redi provided early evidence against spontaneous generation.
He devised an experiment in in which he used three jars. He placed a meatloaf and egg in each of the three jars. He had one of the jars open, another one tightly sealed, and the last one covered with gauze.
After a few days, he observed that the meatloaf in the open jar was covered by maggots, and the jar covered with gauze had maggots on the surface of the gauze. However, the tightly sealed jar had no maggots inside or outside it.
He also noticed that the maggots were found only on surfaces that were accessible by flies. From this he concluded that spontaneous generation is not a plausible theory. Microorganisms are said to have been first directly observed in the s by Anton van Leeuwenhoekan early pioneer in microbiology.
Yet Athanasius Kircher may have done so prior. When Rome was struck by the bubonic plague inKircher spent days on end caring for the sick.
Searching for a cure, Kircher observed microorganisms under the microscope and invented the germ theory of disease, which he outlined in his Scrutinium pestis physico-medicum Rome It outlined a theory of contagion stating that specific 'animalculae' in the soil and the air were responsible for causing specific diseases.
Von Plenciz noted the distinction between diseases which are both epidemic and contagious like measles and dysentryand diseases which are contagious but not epidemic like rabies and leprosy. Ultimately, the theory espoused by von Plenciz was not accepted by the scientific community.
Agostino Bassi[ edit ] The Italian Agostino Bassi was the first person to prove that a disease was caused by a microorganism when he conducted a series of experiments between anddemonstrating that a "vegetable parasite" caused a disease in silkworms known as calcinaccio—this disease was devastating the French silk industry at the time.
The "vegetable parasite" is now known to be a fungus pathogenic to insects called Beauveria bassiana named after Bassi. Ignaz Semmelweis[ edit ] Ignaz Semmelweisa Hungarian obstetrician working at the Vienna General Hospital Allgemeines Krankenhaus innoticed the dramatically high maternal mortality from puerperal fever following births assisted by doctors and medical students.
However, those attended by midwives were relatively safe. Investigating further, Semmelweis made the connection between puerperal fever and examinations of delivering women by doctors, and further realized that these physicians had usually come directly from autopsies.
Asserting that puerperal fever was a contagious disease and that matter from autopsies were implicated in its development, Semmelweis made doctors wash their hands with chlorinated lime water before examining pregnant women.
Despite this evidence, he and his theories were rejected by most of the contemporary medical establishment. Gideon Mantell[ edit ] Gideon Mantellthe Sussex doctor more famous for discovering dinosaur fossilsspent time with his microscope, and speculated in his Thoughts On Animalcules that perhaps "many of the most serious maladies which afflict humanity, are produced by peculiar states of invisible animalcular life".
Even though the germ theory of disease pioneered by Girolamo Fracastoro had not yet achieved full development or widespread currency, Snow demonstrated a clear understanding of germ theory in his writings.
He first published his theory in an essay On the Mode of Communication of Cholera, in which he correctly suggested that the fecal-oral route was the mode of communication, and that the disease replicated itself in the lower intestines.
He even proposed in his edition of the work, that the structure of cholera was that of a cell.Importance Of Microbiology Essay Sample Microbiology is a subject dealing with microbes and related concepts. Microbiology has come a long way since discovery of microbes and is presently of great help .
Although wheat is a staple food for most of the human population, some of its components trigger adverse reactions. Among wheat components, the alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATI) are important triggers of several allergies and activators of innate immunity.
The importance of microbiology includes: used in biomedical research, creation of medicines, environmental applications and new research tools.
Disease causing organisms include: protists, bacteria, viruses and other microorganisms. Bacteria are important for fixing N2 in a . ClassZone Book Finder. Follow these simple steps to find online resources for your book. The goal of Sudoku is to fill in a 9×9 grid with digits so that each column, row, and 3×3 section contain the numbers between 1 to 9.
At the beginning of the game, . Role of microorganisms in wastewater treatment: Wastewater is treated by microbes to free from all garbage. This is termed as biological oxygen demand. i.e., amount of oxygen required by microbes to decay on quintal (kg) of waste.
Importance of soil microbiology: Soil microbiology is very important to maintain soil structure and nature.