Students conducted lab experiments to test for a variety of different mutations. The objective was for students to learn about the inheritance patterns of organisms by observing fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster. The teacher resource Fruit Fly Genetics Project explains how to undertake this project and provides downloadable materials for use in the classroom.
Click on the small thumbnail pictures below to magnify the flies. You'll see enlarged illustrations of fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster. In our real exhibit you'd be looking at the actual flies crawling around, looking for food or grooming their wings.
Compare the mutated flies to the normal flies. The fruit flies in this exhibit show just a few of the mutations that occur in natural fruit fly populations. The genetic instructions to build a fruit fly-or any other organism-are imprinted in its DNA, a long, threadlike molecule packaged in bundles called chromosomes.
Like a phone book made up of different names and addresses, each chromosome consists of many individual sections called genes. Each gene carries some of the instructions for building one particular characteristic of an organism. To build a complete organism, many genes must work precisely together.
A defect in a gene can cause a change in the building plan for one particular body part-or for the entire organism. Mutations are neither good nor bad: By creating new gene versions, mutations are a driving force for changes in evolution, sometimes leading to new species. Biologists learn about the proper function of any gene by studying mutations.
If a defective gene causes short wings, for instance, scientists know that the healthy version of the gene is responsible for correct wing formation. Normal Fruit Flies These are normal fruit flies, or "wildtypes. Now compare them with the other fruit flies here.
Short-Winged Flies Notice the shortened wings of these flies. Flies with vestigial wings cannot fly: These flies have a recessive mutation.
Of the pair of vestigial genes carried by each fly one from each parentboth have to be altered to produce the abnormal wing shape.
If only one is mutated, the healthy version can override the defect. Curly-Winged Flies Notice the curled wings of these flies.bio study notes Essay. Genetics Midterm Textbook Notes Mendelian Genetics: pg. The Principle of Dominance- in a heterozygote, one allele may conceal the presence of another The Principle of Segregation- in a heterozygote, two different alleles segregate from each other during the formation of gametes The Principle of Independent.
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Giving examples (after , questions become much broader and thematic.). Review the processes and principles behind living organisms and their ecosystems through exam prep practice questions on scientific inquiry and models in Albert's AP Biology prep course.
Below are free-response questions from past AP Biology Exams. Included with the questions are scoring guidelines, sample student responses, and commentary on those responses, as well as exam statistics and the Chief Reader's Student Performance Q&A for past administrations.