Many people believe that sexual development does not become an important issue until puberty and adolescence. However, children begin showing sexual behavior and interest in their sexual functioning starting in infancy. Development of gender identity and sexuality cuts across physical, cognitive, social, and emotional developmental dimensions. However, just as in all channels of development, it's important to remember that each child is unique and may develop more rapidly or slowly than other children.
Historical approaches[ edit ] Although the word "acculturation" was coined by J. Powell in the earliest record of acculturation can be found in Sumerian inscriptions from B.
These inscriptions laid out rules for commerce and interaction with foreigners designed to limit acculturation and protect traditional cultural practices. Accordingly, he proposed that no one should travel abroad until they are at least 40 years of age, and that travellers should be restricted to the ports of cities to minimize contact with native citizens.
One of the most notable forms of acculturation is imperialismthe most common predecessor of direct cultural change. Although these cultural changes may seem simple, the combined results are both robust and complex, impacting both groups and individuals from the original culture and the host culture.
The first psychological theory of acculturation was proposed in W.
From studying Polish immigrants in Chicago, they illustrated three forms of acculturation corresponding to three personality types: Bohemian adopting the host culture and abandoning Essay on identity development culture of originPhilistine failing to adopt the host culture but preserving their culture of originand creative-type able to adapt to the host culture while preserving their culture of origin.
Those phenomena which result when groups of individuals having different cultures come into continuous first-hand contact, with subsequent changes in the original cultural patterns of either or both groups Thus, Essay on identity development term adaptation is used by Gudykunst and Kim to mean conformity to the coercive power pp.
This is further emphasized by Gudykunst and Kimstating that the way of "upward-forward" evolution toward functional fitness and psychological health is for the newcomer to willfully "unlearn" and "deculturize" themselves p.
Gudykunst and Kim proposed both psychotherapy and abandonment of all ethnic relations and associations with ethnic ties to help immigrants achieve "integrative" conformity According to Gudykunst and Kimincreased disintegration is preferred, even if it leads to extreme distress for the immigrant.
Ironically, Gudykunst and Kim seemed to identify the concept of acculturative stress stating "even extreme mental illness [caused by "conformity pressure" p. Evolutionary progress for the individual requires the individual to "abandon identification with the cultural patterns that have constituted who one is and what one is" p.
Kramer developed his theory of Cultural Fusion a,  a,   a,    maintaining clear, conceptual distinctions between assimilation, adaptation, and integration.
According to Kramer, assimilation involves conformity to a pre-existing form. In other words, Kramer argues that one need not unlearn a language in order to learn a new one, nor does one have to unlearn who one is in order to learn new ways of dancing, cooking, talking and so forth.
Unlike Gudykunst and KimKramer argues that this blending of language and culture results in cognitive complexity, or the ability to switch between cultural repertoires. Kramer[ edit ] Although numerous models of acculturation exist, the most complete models take into consideration the changes occurring at the group and individual levels of both interacting groups.
According to this view, total assimilation would result in a monoculture void of personal identity, meaning, and communication. It is important to note that in this theory, no single mode of communication is inherently superior, and no final solution to intercultural conflict is suggested.
Instead, Kramer puts forth three integrated theories: Idolic reality involves strong emotional identification, where a holy relic does not simply symbolize the sacred, it is sacred. By contrast, a Christian crucifix follows a symbolic nature, where it represents a symbol of God.
Lastly, the signalic modality is far less emotional and increasingly dissociated. Kramer refers to changes in each culture due to acculturation as co-evolution. For example, the process of acculturation is markedly different if one is entering the host as an immigrant or as a refugee.
Moreover, this idea encapsulates the importance of how receptive a host culture is to the newcomer, how easy is it for the newcomer to interact with and get to know the host, and how this interaction affects both the newcomer and the host. Fourfold models[ edit ] The fourfold model is a bilinear model that categorizes acculturation strategies along two dimensions.
Separation occurs when individuals reject the dominant or host culture in favor of preserving their culture of origin.
Separation is often facilitated by immigration to ethnic enclaves.Free Essays on Identity Essay Conclusion for students. Use our papers to help you with yours 1 - David Elkind and James Marcia’s theories on adolescence and identity development really apply to many of the concerns I faced and also explain much of my behavior today.
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