Educational Psychology plays a very important role in our daily lives as it helps us to understand and develop strategies to improve the learning process. Thus, by showing their similarities like in language and adaptation theories. These are age-related stages and refer to certain accomplishments that should be achieved, by the child, at the end of each stage. The first stage of cognitive development is the Sensorimotor stage, which lasts from birth to around two… Cognitive development and Aging Paper As people age their bodies go through a lot of changes physically as well as psychologically.
The mechanism in which an individual forms this intelligence is where these two theorists differ. Piaget believed that intelligence came from experience and action. Having a doctorate in biology, he believed that an individual can only reach the next level of aptitude if that individual had adequately developed cognitively.
Vygotsky thought just the opposite, that is, one can only develop when one has reached a higher level of intelligence, hence intelligence drove development Slavin, Both Piaget and Vygotsky both believed that the environment influenced intelligence. Vygotsky believed that an individual places importance on the contribution of others and the environment, Piaget on the other hand did not.
In other words, Piaget thought that the environment was passive in the development of an individual, that is, the environment was a world to be explored.
Through this exploration and the experiences gained, a person constructs mental frameworks, or schemes Slavin, Children use these schemes to deal with particular situations, by accessing the information therein.
When new information is discovered using a scheme, the child incorporates this real-world finding into that scheme, thereby expanding the scheme through process called assimilation Slavin, If however, a child encounters a real-world situation where a scheme has failed, the disparity between what is thought should happen and what actually happens creates confusion and an imbalance in the child.
The existing scheme must be modified to accommodate the new experiences. Hence, the process of accommodation in order to create equilibrium is at the root of learning and intelligence.
Creating, expanding and modifying schemes are the mechanisms by which intelligence is affected. Vygotsky however had a different opinion. He believed that intelligence was gained by learning from others.
The building blocks for intelligence are sign systems, systems that a society uses to communicate and solve problems Slavin, Sign systems are learned by observing others to the point where an individual can solve problems on their own using the newly learned systems, a process called self-regulation Slavin, Vygotsky believed that children receive this information from more capable peers or adults.
This social learning requires great involvement from the teacher when beginning to learn the task; and as the child learns, the aid is lessened to the point where there is minimal aid and the individual is fully competent at the task at hand.
Too easy a task, and a child is already competent in the task, hence no learning occurs. Too difficult a task, and no level of aid can help the child learn the task, so no learning occurs.
During scaffolding, an individual takes information from the environment and repeats that information to themselves, whether vocally or mentallyin order to internalize and use that information to solve the problem.
This process is called private speech Slavin, For Vygotsky, learning sign systems and self-regulation is the root of intelligence. The next issue separating the two theorists is the aspect of stages of cognitive development.
Although, both Piaget and Vygotsky believed that there was a natural progression in development from child to adult, the similarities end there.
Piaget believed that there are four stages in cognitive development that occur in certain age ranges. It is possible however for different children of the same age to operate at different levels of cognitive development, and some children may exhibit aspects of more than one stage — especially when in transition between stages of development Slavin, What always holds true for Piaget however is that an individual passes through these four stages, in order, through their lifetime.
The first of these stages is called the sensorimotor stage which typically occurs between birth and the age of two Slavin, During this stage, children rely on their actions, movement and reflexesto perceived the world.
All intelligence is acquired through this physicality. It is also at this stage, that the child learns how to crawl and then walk.
Toward the end of this first stage, the child understands the concept of object permanence, the idea that objects still exist even though they cannot be seen Slavin, During this stage, children begin to think of the world by using symbols. Learning to talk takes place at this age as children begin to understand that words are symbols for the world around them.
Thinking during this stage is egocentric, meaning that children believe that everyone thinks as they do. Also during this stage thinking is centered, meaning that children in this stage only are aware of one aspect of an object or situation Slavin, The third stage, or concrete stage presents itself between the ages of seven and eleven and is marked by a drastic change in cognitive ability Slavin, Egocentrism gives way to more logical thought processes.Theories of Development: Cognitive Theory and Behaviorism Essay - Off the five developmental theories, I would like to describe and explain two grand theories, Cognitive theory and Behaviorism.
The main concepts of cognitive theory focuses on the developmental process of thinking and how this process affects our actions, attitudes, beliefs and. Theories of cognitive development: Assignment one - Theories of Cognitive Development Essay introduction. ‘Compare and contrast the cognitive theories of the theorists – Piaget, Vygotsky & Bruner, criticising the basis of each theory’ This essay will be comparing and contrasting the cognitive theories and approaches of Piaget.
Piaget’s theory of cognitive development is a broad theory about the nature and development of human intelligence. Although it is commonly known as a developmental stage theory, it also engages with the nature of knowledge itself and how individuals get to acquire, construct, and use the knowledge obtained.
Essay: Cognitive development – Piaget, Vygotsky, and Information processing There are many theories that involve cognitive development. Although these theories are on the same subject, they vary depending on different factors. Jean Piaget looked at the concept of cognitive development from a biological angle.
To him, adaptation and organization are the key principles in the human’s intellect and growth. He argued that human beings always strive to have a state of balance in their mind.
Adaptation comes about when the. Theories of Cognitive Development essaysPart I: Introduce Piaget and Vygotsky Jean Piaget (): Piaget was the first psychologist who made a systematic study of cognitive development (McLeod, Saul, ).