Simile - contrasting to seemingly unalike things to enhance the meaning of a situation or theme using like or as What happens to a dream deferred, does it dry up like a raisin in the sun Hyperbole - exaggeration I have a million things to do today. Personification - giving non-human objects human characteristics America has thrown her hat into the ring, and will be joining forces with the British.
CConflict of Interest in Four Professions: The professions evaluated here—law lawyersaccountancy certified public accountants [CPAs]architecture, and engineering—each differ from medicine in having clients or employers rather than patients as the focus of concern.
The difference is not simply one of terminology.
A client or an employer is not necessarily human. Many are corporations or governments. Even the human clients differ from patients. With some exceptions e.
A client or employer simply asks that something be done a building put up, a machine designed, a contract drawn, or a company audited. Emergencies are much rarer in these professions than they are in medicine, and time to think through a problem is more plentiful. Because of their relative sophistication and bargaining strength compared both with patients and with the professional in questionclients or employers need not readily consent to accept the conflicts disclosed to them; they are more likely to insist that a conflict be avoided or resolved or to use the conflict to better the bargain.
In other words, law, ac counting, architecture, and engineering are professions in which one might expect much less concern with conflicts of interest than in medicine. Although these are the chief differences between medicine and the professions discussed here, they are not the only ones.
These other professions differ substantially in size from medicine—and from each other. Physicians outnumber architects in the United States by about 10 to 1, engineers outnumber physicians by about 3 to 1, and the numbers of individuals in the other professions fall somewhere in between.
Importantly, only one profession, engineering, does much that physicians would recognize as scientific research. The professions evaluated here were chosen because none is a close analogue of medicine.
Medicine tends to be the model for adjacent professions osteopathy, dentistry, pharmacy, nursing, and so on. The comparison of medicine with an adjacent profession would provide less contrast and therefore less understanding of conflict of interest as a general problem for professions.
All of the professions discussed here have substantial experience with employment in large organizations. Two of the professions—engineering and accounting—have a long history of employment in such organizations.
Only a small minority of engineers has ever been self-employed in the way that most physicians, except those in research and teaching, were until recently.
Even self-employed architects, lawyers, and accountants often work for and in large organizations in a way that physicians have only recently begun to do in large numbers. Looking at how these nonmedical professions respond to the conflicts of interest that are more likely to arise in large organizations should help physicians both look critically at present arrangements and anticipate the future.
Finally, these professions all recognize conflicts of interest as posing a threat to the integrity of the profession and have developed ethics rules to address the threat.
The first court case to use it in something like the sense that is now standard occurred in We are all trying to keep pace with the usage. For the professions discussed here, the term groups together a range of scenarios in which the professional judgment of the individual in question risks being compromised.
In some of the professions, a situation—for example, the representation of both plaintiff and defendant in the same legal case—is labeled a conflict of interest when it would be described as a conflict of obligations or responsibilities in the report to which this paper is an appendix see Chapter 2 because neither obligation would be considered secondary to the other.
For all of the professions discussed in this paper, a certain sort of expert and trustworthy judgment in individual situations the judgment characteristic of the profession is what makes members of the profession useful.It demonstrates how a frame change (or reframing) may cause a shift in conflict development, towards conflict management and/or resolution.
Types of frame categories are numerous and coined differently by researchers in various fields. Frame Analysis and Reframing as Conflict Management Tools. The field of conflict resolution and conduct of foreign policy Since the mids and early s, several conceptual frameworks have been introduced to illustrate different uses of conflict resolution strategies in a changing world.
What are the four major types of conflict and which best describes the main conflict in "The Pit and The Pendulum" by Edgar Allen Poe?
The types of man Versus man conflict vary throughout the book from physical fights between two individuals, verbal fights, and parents beating their kids to a lynch mob hunting down a man.
At the beginning of the book Twain begins to give some hints to some sorts of the conflicts that are going to evolve through the story.
In the same way, conflict analysis models are maps, maps of conflict processes that are simplified to help us understand where we are, and where we can go . Conflict is classified into the following four types: Interpersonal conflict refers to a conflict between two individuals.
This occurs typically due to .