No lyrics from to Revised lyrics from to Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europethe Soviet Union had spanned eleven time zones and incorporated a wide range of environments and landforms. It shared its maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.
History of Russia —96 Peter the Great — [ edit ] Peter the Great officially renamed the Tsardom of Russia as the Russian Empire in and became its first emperor. He instituted sweeping reforms and oversaw the transformation of Russia into a major European power. Peter I the Great — played a major role in introducing Russia to the European state system.
While the vast land had a population of 14 million, grain yields trailed behind those of agriculture in the West,  compelling nearly the entire population to farm.
Only a small percentage lived in towns. The class of kholopsclose in status to slaveryremained a major institution in Russia untilwhen Peter converted household kholops into house serfsthus including them in poll taxation.
Russian agricultural kholops were formally converted into serfs earlier in Peter's first military efforts were directed against the Ottoman Turks. His attention then turned to the North. Peter still lacked a secure northern seaport, except at Archangel on the White Seawhere the harbor was frozen for nine months a year.
Access to the Baltic was blocked by Sweden, whose territory enclosed it on three sides. Peter's ambitions for a "window to the sea" led him to make a secret alliance in with Saxonythe Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth and Denmark against Sweden, resulting in the Great Northern War.
The war ended in when an exhausted Sweden asked for peace with Russia. Peter acquired four provinces situated south and east of the Gulf of Finland. The coveted access to the sea was now secured. There he built Russia's new capital, Saint Petersburgto replace Moscow, which had long been Russia's cultural center.
Inhe turned his aspirations as first Russian monarch toward increasing Russian influence in the Caucasus and the Caspian Sea at the expense of the weakened Safavid Persians.
He made Astrakhan the centre of military efforts against Persia, and waged the first full-scale war against them in — He replaced the old boyar Duma council of nobles with a nine-member Senate, in effect a supreme council of state.
The countryside was divided into new provinces and districts. Peter told the Senate that its mission was to collect taxes, and tax revenues tripled over the course of his reign. As part of the government reform, the Orthodox Church was partially incorporated into the country's administrative structure, in effect making it a tool of the state.
Peter abolished the patriarchate and replaced it with a collective body, the Holy Synodled by a government official. Meanwhile, all vestiges of local self-government were removed.This paper documents regional variation in economic development of the late Russian empire, reconstructing gross regional products and labor productivity by sector for all provinces of the country in the late 19 th century for the first time.
To understand the complex history of Jews in Russia, one must begin with a fundamental distinction, often effaced in the historiography and popular memory, between Russia as a state—the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union, and since , the Russian Federation—and the geographically much smaller entity of ethnic timberdesignmag.com the s, there were essentially no Jews in the Russian Empire.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a socialist federation in Eurasia that existed from to Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly timberdesignmag.com country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian .
Soviet Union: Soviet Union, former northern Eurasian empire (/22–) stretching from the Baltic and Black seas to the Pacific Ocean. The best opinions, comments and analysis from The Telegraph.
The American Empire. By Wade Frazier.
Soviet Union: Soviet Union, former northern Eurasian empire (/22–) stretching from the Baltic and Black seas to the Pacific Ocean. Like the Customs Union before it, the Eurasian Economic Union was built with one goal in mind: to cement Russia's hold over the states in its periphery. With the promise of investment and protection, the Kremlin has done just that, bringing fellow bloc members Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan firmly under its influence. This paper documents regional variation in economic development of the late Russian empire, reconstructing gross regional products and labor productivity by sector for all provinces of the country in the late 19 th century for the first time.
Revised July Purpose and Disclaimer. Timeline. Introduction. The New World Before “Discovery,” and the First Contacts.